Ubiquitination is accomplished through the sequential actions of ubiquitin-activating (E1) enzymes, ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes, and ubiquitin ligases (E3).
- How do E3 enzymes recognize and modify target proteins?
- How do E3 enzymes achieve linkage specificity in ubiquitin chain formation?
- How are E2 and E3 enzymes regulated? How does the formation of supramolecular complexes impact the activities of E2 and E3 enzymes?
- How does ubiquitination crosstalk with other types of posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation?
To answer these questions we use a variety of techniques including X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, computational tools, biophysical measurements, biochemical and cell biological assays.